The World Wide
Web is a collection of electronic documents that are linked together
like a spider web.
These documents are stored on computers called servers located around
The Web has evolved into a global electronic publishing medium and increasingly,
a medium for conducting electronic commerce.
What Is the Web Made of?
The Web consists
Your personal computer
Web browser software to access the Web
A connection to an Internet service provider (ISP)
Servers to host the data
Routers and switches to direct the flow of data
3. How the Web Works
Web pages are stored
on web servers located around the globe.
Entering the (Uniform Resource Locator) URL of a web page in your web
browser or clicking a link sends a request to the server which hosts
The server sends the web page to your computer and your web browser
displays it on your screen.
4. Web Pages
A web page is an
electronic document written in a computer language called HTML (Hypertext
Web pages can contain text, graphics, video, animation, and sound, as
well as interactive features, such as data entry forms.
Each page has a unique address known as a URL (Uniform Resource Locator),
which identifies its location on the server.
Web pages usually contain hyperlinks to other web pages. Hyperlinks
are text and images that reference the URLs of other web pages.
A website is one
or more web pages that relate to a common theme, such as a person, business,
organization, or a subject.
The first page is called the home page, which acts like an index, indicating
the content on the site.
From the home page, you can click hyperlinks to access other web pages.
Navigating the Web
There are three
main ways to move between web pages or websites:
* Clicking a text hyperlink.
* Clicking a hyperlinked
graphic image, such as a button, photograph, or drawing.
* Typing the URL
of a web page in the location box (also known as the address field)
of your web browser and the pressing the Enter or Return key
7. Identifying a Hyperlink (for persons not using
a screen reader)
Text links are
usually underlined and in a different colour from the rest of the text.
To determine if a graphic is hyperlinked, move your cursor arrow over
the image. You know the item is hyperlinked if:
* The arrow cursor
turns into a hand.
* A URL appears in the status bar at the lower left of your web browser.
How Hyperlinks Work
A text or graphic
hyperlink hides a URL.
Clicking a hyperlink passes the URL to your browser.
Clicking different parts of a linked graphic, called an image map, takes
you to different web pages or different places on the same page.
In addition to pointing to web pages, hyperlinks can access media files,
such as sound or video clips.
Using Web URLs
A URL indicates
where the web page is stored on the Internet.
URLs almost never
use back slashes (\). All slashes are forward slashes (/).
You need to type a URL exactly for your browser to locate the desired
Although URLs may contain spaces between characters, they usually do
Some large websites have multiple URLs that access the same site.
The location box or address field on your browser indicates the URL
of the page you arrived at after clicking a link.
Examples of URLs
a. example: directory
A directory of files at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
that you can download
b. examples: home
The home page for DAWN Canada: DisAbled Women's Network Canada
The home page for DAWN Ontario: DisAbled Women's Network Ontario
The home page for Action des Femmes Handicapées Montréal
c. example: newsgroup
A newsgroup about rose gardening
11. Anatomy of a URL
Here is how to
interpret the various parts of a URL:
http:// www. dawncanada.net/
http:// -- Short
for Hypertext Transfer Protocol, this indicates a hypertext document
www. -- This indicates
a page on the World Wide Web. (Sometimes "www" is missing.)
-- Called the domain name, it often tells you the name of a company,
university, or organization. It can also tell you the country of origin.
-- Together, these indicate the web server name.
english/ -- This
is directory or folder on the web server that contains a group of related
web pages within the website.
welcome.htm -- This
is a web page inside the folder. A URL doesn't always include the name
of the web page.
12. Membership Websites
Some websites require
you to enter a password to access sections of the site.
You can get a password by registering with the site, usually by filling
out an online form. YahooGroups is an example of a membership site;
YahooGroups does not charge a user free as some of their operating costs
are underwritten by advertising dollars. Some sites require that you
pay a fee.
News sites, such as The Wall Street Journal
Technical support sites for many companies
Sites with proprietary information that is sold, such as financial and
13. Web Browsers
A web browser is
a software program used to access the World Wide Web.
A browser (also known as client software) retrieves data from remote
web servers and displays a web page.
The two most popular browsers come from Netscape and Microsoft.
Browsers basically work the same way. Once you know one, you can easily
learn the other.
14. Anatomy of a Web Browser: The Toolbar
The most useful
buttons on your browser toolbar include:
Back -- Returns you to the previous page.
Forward -- Returns you to a page you have backed up from.
Home -- Takes you to a home page specified in the browser preferences.
Reload or Refresh -- Downloads the web page from the server again.
Stop -- Stops the browser from loading the current page.
Print -- Lets you make a hard copy of the current document or frame
loaded in your browser.
15. More Web Browser Anatomy
icon (upper right) -- When animated, it tells you the browser is retrieving
Status bar (lower left) -- Reports on the progress of the data download.
Go menu -- Lets you select a web page you have previously accessed.
Text-only mode (Images button) -- Prevents graphics from loading, providing
a faster way to access web page
16. Specifying a Home Page in Netscape Navigator
On the browser
Menu bar, click Options, select General Preferences, then select the
In the Browser Starts With text-box, type the address of the web page
you want as your start-up page. the box.
Specifying a Home Page in Internet Explorer
Go to the web page
you want to use as your start-up page.
On the browser menu bar, click View, select Options, then select the
In the address Text box, type in the address of the web page you want
as your start-up page.
Click Use Current
18. Saving an Image from the Web
Move your cursor
over the graphic.
Windows users: Click the right mouse button. A pop-up box appears.
Macintosh users: Click and hold the mouse button. A pop-up box appears.
Save the image to your hard drive by selecting a Save option.
You can accept the current file name or rename the file. (Graphic files
are usually in .gif or .jpg format.)
19. Printing a Web Page
Most browsers have a Print button on the toolbar that lets you print
a web page.
Some web pages are divided into multiple sections called frames. You
can only print one frame at a time.
To print a particular frame, first select it by clicking it.
Then click the Print button or select Print Frame from the File menu.
20. Multimedia on the Web
Sound, video, animation,
and 3D interactive video are referred to as multimedia.
Some multimedia, called streaming media, plays as soon as you access
a web page.
Others require that you download the multimedia file to your computer
Multimedia files often requires that your browser use a plug-in program.
Plug-ins are small
software programs that extend the capabilities of your browser by enabling
it to play sounds and video clips or do other functions, such as automatically
decompressing files that you download.
Plug-ins may come with your browser software or can be downloaded from
Some plug-ins enable streaming audio or video, which lets you hear or
view a multimedia file before it has completely downloaded to your computer.
on completing this mini-course!
You're on your way to becoming a Master of the Web.