DAWN Ontario: DisAbled Women's Network Ontario

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Assistive / Adaptive Technology

Page Contents

Types of Assistive Devices

Article: "How to Choose Appropriate Adapted Technology"

Article: "Questions to ask in Choosing adaptive technology"

Family Guide to Assistive Technology (American resource - very informative - opens in a new browser window)

How to Buy Assistive Technology Online


Types of Assistive Technology

Below you will find information about assistive technology products for:

  • Visual impairments
  • Mobility impairments
  • Language impairments
  • Learning impairments


SCREEN ENLARGERS (or screen magnifiers) work like a magnifying glass. They enlarge a portion of the screen, increasing the legibility for some users. Some screen enlargers allow a person to zoom in and out on a particular area of the screen. Screen readers are software programs that present graphics and text as speech. For a computer user who is blind, and does not need a monitor, a screen reader is used to verbalize, or "speak," everything on the screen including names and descriptions of control buttons, menus, text, and punctuation. In essence, a screen reader transforms a graphic user interface (GUI) into an audio interface.

SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEMS, also called voice recognition programs, allow people to give commands and enter data using their voices rather than a mouse or keyboard. Voice recognition systems use a microphone attached to the computer, which can be used to create text documents such as letters or e-mail messages, browse the Internet, and navigate among applications and menus by voice. Speech recognition systems are also used by people with language and learning disabilities who have difficulty typing or reading text.

SPEECH SYNTHESIZERS receive information going to the screen in the form of letters, numbers, and punctuation marks, and then "speak" it out loud. Often referred to as text-to-speech (TTS), the voice of the computer is synthesized speech—a distinctive, sometimes monotone voice that is the joining together of preprogrammed letters and words. Using speech synthesizers allows blind users to review their input as they type. Speech synthesizers are also used by people with language and learning impairments, for example, those who are unable to communicate orally.

REFRESHABLE BRAILLE displays provide tactile output of information represented on the computer screen. A Braille "cell" is composed of a series of dots. The pattern of the dots and various combinations of the cells are used in place of letters. Refreshable Braille displays mechanically lift small rounded plastic or metal pins as needed to form Braille characters. The user reads the Braille letters with his or her fingers, and then, after a line is read, can refresh the display to read the next line.

BRAILLE EMBOSSERS transfer computer generated text into embossed Braille output. Braille translation programs convert text scanned in or generated via standard word processing programs into Braille, which can be printed on the embosser. Talking and large-print word processors are software programs that use speech synthesizers to provide auditory feedback of what is typed. Large-print word processors allow the user to view everything in large text without added screen enlargement. Individuals with learning disabilities often use these special-featured word processors to assist them with their spelling and grammar and/or to provide the auditory feedback they require to be able to write.


ON-SCREEN KEYBOARD PROGRAMS provide an image of a standard or modified keyboard on the computer screen. The user selects the keys with a mouse, touch screen, trackball, joystick, switch, or electronic pointing device. On-screen keyboards often have a scanning option. With the scanning capability turned on, the individual keys on the on-screen keyboard are highlighted. When a desired key is high-lighted, an individual with a mobility impairment is able to select it by using a switch positioned near a body part that is under his or her voluntary control.

KEYBOARD FILTERS include typing aids such as word prediction utilities and add-on spelling checkers. These products reduce the required number of keystrokes. Keyboard filters enable users to quickly access the letters they need and to avoid inadvertently selecting keys they don't want. Keyboard filters—especially word prediction and spelling checkers—are also used by people with language and learning impairments.

TOUCH SCREENS are devices placed on the computer monitor (or built into it) that allow direct selection or activation of the computer by touching the screen. These devices can benefit some users with mobility impairments because they present a more accessible target. It is easier for some people to select an option directly rather than through a mouse movement or keyboard because that movement might require greater fine motor skills than simply touching the screen to make a selection.
Other people with mobility impairments might make their selections with assistive technology such as mouth sticks. Touch screens are also used by people with language and learning impairments who find it a more simple, direct, and intuitive process than making a selection using a mouse or keyboard.

ALTERNATIVE INPUT DEVICES allow individuals to control their computers through means other than a standard keyboard or pointing device. Examples include:

  • Alternative keyboards —those with larger- or smaller-than-standard keys or keyboards, alternative key configurations, and keyboards for use with one hand.
  • Electronic pointing devices—used to control the cursor on the screen using ultrasound, an infrared beam, eye movements, nerve signals, or brain waves.
  • Sip-and-puff systems—activated by the user's breath.
  • Wands and sticks—used to strike keys on the keyboard (usually worn on the head, held in the mouth, strapped to the chin).
  • Joysticks—manipulated by hand, feet, chin, etc. and used to control the cursor on screen.
  • Trackballs—movable balls on top of a base that can be used to move the cursor on screen.


SCREEN REVIEW UTILITIES make on-screen information available as synthesized speech and pairs the speech with a visual representation of a word, for example, highlighting a word as it is spoken. Screen review utilities convert the text that appears on screen into a computer voice. This helps some people with language impairments. Some individuals with learning impairments find speech recognition easier to use for writing text. Additional assistive technology products used with computers by people with language impairments also include others which are defined above:

  • Keyboard filters
  • Speech recognition programs
  • Touch screens
  • Speech synthesizers


WORD PREDICTION PROGRAMS allow the user to select a desired word from an on-screen list located in the prediction window. This list, generated by the computer, predicts words from the first one or two letters typed by the user. The word can then be selected from the list and inserted into the text by typing a number, clicking the mouse, or scanning with a switch. These programs help users increase vocabulary skills through word prompting.

READING COMPREHENSION PROGRAMS focus on establishing or improving reading skills through ready-made activities, stories, exercises, or games. These programs can help users practice letter sound recognition and can increase the understanding of words by adding graphics, sound, and possibly animation.

READING TOOLS AND LEARNING DISABILITIES PROGRAMS include software designed to make text-based materials more accessible for people who have difficulty with reading. Options can include scanning, reformatting, navigating, or speaking text out loud. These programs help people who have difficulty seeing or manipulating conventional print materials; people who are developing new literacy skills or who are learning English as a foreign language; and people who comprehend better when they hear and see text highlighted simultaneously.

Additional assistive technology products used with computers by people with learning impairments also include products defined above including:

  • Speech synthesizers
  • Speech recognition programs
  • Talking and large print word processors


Article: "How to Choose Appropriate Adapted Technology"

The Right Stuff - How to Choose Appropriate Adapted Technology
by Kelly Pierce

People with disabilities can use adapted technology (AT) to gain new skills, keep old ones and live more independently. An appropriate technology solution will hopefully dramatically decrease a person's need for help or eliminate it all together. However, choosing the right technology is often a difficult task. This and the following articles offer strategies and tips to use when considering a technology solution.

Be actively involved in making the decision

When the end user is central to making the decisions about technology, the more likely it will effectively promote independence. Funding sources want to ensure any device purchased is needed, appropriate and will be used. Ultimately, the responsibility for success falls on the end user. The wrong decision can mean your job or at least be costly. It's better to actively participate in the process and ask lots of basic questions than try to fix a mess later. Just think about your closets. Is there something there that you do not use? Why aren't you using it? The wrong size? Not your style? Uncomfortable to use? Ugly? It's too fancy and you're a jeans and sweatshirt kind of person? More than likely the reason will be "It's just not who I am!" Consider who bought it and if you did, consider why you did. Like most things we use, adapted technology must fit who we are: physically, emotionally, culturally and personally. The decision is more than just buying a product.

Get others involved

If you are considering getting some adapted technology, seek out feedback from others. Even when you are choosing a very simple, low-tech piece of equipment, talking it over with other users, or a person who knows you well, will offer another perspective. They may see pitfalls that weren't obvious to you. This can be especially true when considering technology for children. Parents and others can provide the reinforcement, maintenance, training and other aspects of supporting the technology that will be used. But if a child needs a computer and the only mouse the parents know is Mickey, everyone needs to be aware of that fact and deal with it. If parents or other people in the support network are not comfortable with the technology solution, then the end user with a disability is not likely to see any benefit.

The team approach

Traditionally, the user, a family member or significant other, teacher, immediate supervisor, technology consultant, and rehabilitation specialists are often members of the team. If the technology is being purchased by an agency, a school, or an employer, the end user will likely go through an assessment team or accommodations committee. Try adding nontraditional team members if you think it will improve the group's problem solving skills. Another end user, computer instructor, local computer guy, or someone good at crafts, or even a classmate will look at the issues differently and often have valuable insights. Be outspoken, and don't be afraid to be a courageous problem solver. It will make for a much more elegant solution. Remember the group is there to solve a problem and decide if technology is the best approach. It's not a computer buying club. That is why it is best to avoid a team where the end user and technology dealer are the two main parties of a team. It can become a feeding frenzy between the two. Remember the adapted technology dealer has a mortgage to pay and groceries to buy, and you, the end user, are a means to that economic end.

Focus on function

Often, disabilities distract people, making them unable to see any potential or ability. By focusing attention on functional skills, we move away from looking at someone in a clinical way and more toward a functional assessment. A good question to ask when you want to focus on function is, "What does this person want or need to do that he or she currently cannot do?" From there the team can begin to look for ways to alter the environment to enable the person to function more independently.

Thinking in general terms

Generalize about the use of the device. Where will you use it? Could it be helpful in other settings? Are there other people at the office or in the family who could use the device? By thinking in general terms about the device, you can get more use or increase the effectiveness of the device. Sometimes parents consider purchasing a computer for their child so she can do homework. When they consider the purchase, they need to look at the computer needs of the entire family. Could an older sister use it to write reports? If it came with a modem, can mom fax or E-mail work from home? A computer with a CD ROM drive or modem provides paperless access to a wealth of information. Generalizing about the who, when, where, why and how aspects of the product can help the user find a product that meets many, rather than just a specific need. However, remember that if several family members use a device, it will limit access to third party funds.

Strive for simplicity

The best technology solution is a no-technology solution. However, adapted technology users only need what will help in accomplishing the task, in the simplest, most efficient way. For example, a reacher is very simple technology. It allows a person to grab an object they could not otherwise reach. It's uncomplicated, and not very costly. A good solution? Not necessarily. It may be a better solution to move the out-of- reach items within reach so the user doesn't need any technology at all. Keeping solutions simple also reduces maintenance and repair costs. Simple solutions are often easier to use and therefore will be used. Generally they are cheaper solutions, so a funding source (whether it is the user or a third party source) is more likely to fund it.

The next step

Choosing the right adapted technology specialist, vendor, dealer, and training are as if not more important than selecting the best product. Using adapted technology requires a package of both product and service. In the next article, I will list and discuss a series of tough, challenging questions to ask yourself and any adapted technology specialist or dealer.

Article: "Questions to ask in Choosing adaptive technology"

"Questions to ask in Choosing adaptive technology"
by Kelly Pierce

Technology users need to be informed consumers. That's why in the last article I emphasized that they need to be smart shoppers, not satisfied with just having someone tell them what they need. I suggested that end users consider the strengths of their support system and use a team to help in making a technology decision. I suggested further that it is best to find the simplest solution and to approach the technology issue in a general way. Blind persons and those with disabilities should constantly ask questions about how the technology will work for them. No matter who pays the bill, adaptive technology (AT) users are obligated to ensure that the device is used. To ensure that, they need to make sure it fits them.

But, how is that done? By simply asking yourself, the team (described in the previous article), other users and the equipment vendors questions and continue to ask until there is a satisfactory answer. Here are some questions a consumer should ask to make sure a device will help accomplish the desired goals.

Personal Considerations.

Does it help me do what I want/need to do?
If it doesn't, don't get it! This may sound like a third grade question, but many people receive AT and from day one it does not work for them. When this happens, you can be sure the user was not an integral part of the assessment team. More than likely the team told the user what would work for him. As a consumer of technology and services, you should never allow that to happen. Speak up for yourself and your needs. Remember that the point of getting technology is to solve a problem or enhance a situation.

Are there any limitations or risks?
Users often see the benefit of AT, but don't bother looking at the other side. While the AT may help you do what you want to do, it may also limit other aspects of your life.

For example, a user is considering purchasing an adapted laptop computer to write letters and reports, access the Internet, and translate material into formatted braille. He should also know that laptop computers are delicate, break down regularly, have a shorter life span, and cost much more than desktops. While it may improve productivity by permitting work to be done in transit or in many locations, the repair problems could cause added expense and lack of access. Does that mean a laptop is not a good product? Not at all, it just means that the user will need to measure the pluses and the minuses. Maybe he will want to have a good desktop computer before buying a laptop. Perhaps he might buy a Braille & Speak, which is lightweight, solid and reliable. However, using a Braille & Speak requires being quite familiar with Braille. This does not make it a bad product, just that nearly every piece of AT has benefits and limitations.

Is it comfortable to use?
Have you ever worn a shirt a half-size too small? If you have, when it was time to wear it again, you probably thought twice about it. If there was another clean shirt in your closet, the small one would just sit there. The same applies to any AT you use. If it is not comfortable, you will eventually discard it. Better to speak up during the assessment process than wait until it's over and the device is in the closet with you no closer to your goal than before you started.

May I have a trial period to see if it works for me?

Let the buyer beware. Don't get caught in the trap of thinking you have to purchase the device outright before you agree to use it. Insist on a trial period. Most reputable vendors will allow you to rent the device for a month or two and then apply the rental payments toward the purchase. Others have a 30-60 day return policy on the device if it does not work for you.

Before deciding on any device and taking it home, spend some time with it hands on. This means using the product yourself, not just observing someone else use it, for an extended period, such as 90 minutes. Try doing the things you would likely do with the product, not just some highly refined test. For example, try writing and editing a business letter with a Screen reader. Also, try using several other similar products in this way as a comparison.

It's common for users to successfully use a device in an insulated clinical setting, like a computer lab or demonstration center, when evaluating or learning about the device. But still they are unable to use it in a real world setting. Someone may be able to use a communication device in formal speech therapy sessions, but be unable to use it to order lunch at McDonald's.

Likewise, speech and braille equipment for a blind computer user may work flawlessly in a demonstration. However, it can't be used on your job or with the other equipment that you purchased. Compatibility problems are common. It's not until you try it in the real world that you can be sure the device will work for you!

Training considerations.

Is it ready to use?
Imagine this. A user receives his adaptive technology. The box is placed in the center of the room and the delivery person leaves. The user did not ask about set up procedures or support. He can't open the box. Even if the box were open, he would not know how to set the device up. By asking this question ahead of time, a user can eliminate these problems once the device arrives.

This scene is played out most often when consumers buy AT primarily on the basis of price. While saving money is important, consumers who put much of their energy into aggressively seeking a competitive price may not realize that setup, installation, basic training, and initial customer support are as important in getting the product to work for them as the benefits of the product itself. As this article suggests, consider price as just one of many factors when considering some kind of AT. Consider the past track record of the manufacturer and dealer when getting your AT. The cheapest price may have its tradeoffs. Consider these when confronting a slight difference in price. The difference could mean a long-lasting partnership with an adaptive technology specialist or someone literally drops the device on your doorstep and runs.

What skills do I need to learn?
Let's suppose a user and his team decide a specific computer and software package is just the thing to help a student benefit from his educational program. However, he does not know how to touch type and has never used a computer alone before. He will need many skills before the device really helps. Until that day comes, the team needs to have alternate plans in place. The student needs to become proficient in using the technology. By asking this question, you ask the team to consider the technology's appropriateness and any learning curve the user may need to get comfortable with a device.

How does it work?

The device you are trying out may seem simple enough to use, but it may have taken the evaluator three days to program it so that you could use it. Ask about set up, what you will need to know about it, what other functions it has and how can you access those too.

Where do I get training?

Will the person who conducts the assessment also provide your training? Do you have a good rapport with him? Will the training come from the sales representative? Is there a 24-hour support line available should you need it? How long will that be available to you?

Are training tapes included as part of the purchase price? If not, where could someone get them? What do other end users think about their quality? Is the manual available on cassette or in braille? If not, how will you learn how to use some of the basic functions of the product?

Some screen reader companies produce information on how to use their product only in print and on computer diskette. Disk manuals can be very helpful, providing in-depth information. However, blind end users have difficulty getting started with the product when the device is required to read the disk or the printed material to use the product.

Is training included in the purchase price?
Wow, what a shock to learn you're responsible for training, when you assumed the price included it. Unfortunately, some don't ask ahead of time.

Also, decide who needs training. Certainly the user will need it, but what about others? Teachers, supervisors, computer department people, family members, co-workers, and roommates are just a few examples of others who may need to know the device as well, or better than the user.
Access Considerations.

Where can I use the AT?
Think about what uses you have for a specific device. If you will use it in multiple settings, how well will it travel? Is there room for it there? Is it noisy? Will it disturb others around you? Will it need to be reprogrammed to use it in different settings? Who will do that? Will that limit the use? An external speech synthesizer offers greater flexibility. You can stash it in a backpack and use a friend's computer as well as your own. However, their might be compatibility problems when it is used with certain kinds of hardware, such as scanners. You doesn't know things like this unless you ask.

Is it bulky?
A device that works well in a stationary setting, may be just fine, unless you need to lug it to the library twice a week. Imagine all the settings you will be using the device in and consider how portable it really needs to be.

Can I use it indoors or out?
How does moisture affect functioning? Climate changes can affect how a device works. If you will be operating the device at the bus stand and it starts to rain you may need to be concerned about this issue. Ask!

What is the battery life?
Battery life is a HUGE issue when considering AT. If you don't stop to ask this question PRIOR to the purchase, you may have a non-functioning device when you need it. If the device requires recharging after every three hours of use, and you will use it twice that amount of time, obviously get extra batteries. But if you don't ask, you won ' know. Batteries eventually wear out. Find out how soon you will need new ones.

If powered, can you plug it in, or is there a power source where you want to use it? You can often conserve battery life by "plugging in." So, think about the places you can hook your AT to an electric outlet. For example, consider sitting next to the wall outlet when you take a laptop to class. You will have more battery life for times when no outlet is convenient.

Repair and Maintenance.

Is it reliable?
The best place to get this information is to ask other users. They have experience with the device, its quirkiness, features and reliability.

To find other users, contact the Blind Computer User Network or join an e-mail discussion list. There are more then 70 blindness-related mailing lists on the Internet. For a list of these with descriptions, go to http://www.hicom.net/~oedipus/blist.html.

To obtain this list by electronic mail, send an e-mail message to listserv@malestrom.stjohns.edu and leave the subject line blank. In the body of the message type: get blist info. This file is more than 200 kilobytes in size. For just an index or listing of all the mailing lists, send an e-mail message to the address above with the command get blist short

Some blindness organizations offer product reviews. For example, the National Federation of the Blind (410-659-9314) offers many product reviews on a floppy disk for $5. Whatever you do, state clearly that you want to find someone who has used the device. Remember that the vendors and manufacturers sell products. Consequently, this makes them not necessarily candid resources about product reliability. In my next article, I will present some questions to ask and points to consider in choosing an adaptive technology specialist, vendor, or dealer.

What is the life expectancy?

Nothing lasts forever and at some point your AT will reach the end of its natural life. Knowing the life expectancy of a device will help you decide if it's time to repair or replace the device. Funding sources should also be aware that eventually replacing the device is far more cost effective or efficient than repairing it.

What is average use?
All technology has a lifespan. Not all devices can be used constantly. Find out what the manufacturer considers an average amount of use for the device. For example, you plan to purchase a device and anticipate using it eight hours a day. However, average use is an hour a day. The device is going to wear out much quicker than usual. Again, if you don't ask, you don't know. ASK!

What does the guarantee/warranty cover?
Some manufacturers provide a bumper-to-bumper warranty, others provide a sort of "cash and carry/as is" coverage for their device. Finding out what the guarantee/warranty covers after the purchase, is too late. Remember to ask and read the fine print. Stores and dealers are required to read every word of contracts, purchase agreements and warranties to consumers with print impairments, including the blind. It is your right under law (including the ADA and local accessibility ordinances) to receive this accommodation. You will not get it unless you ask!

What is the service record of the manufacturer/vendor?
Again, to be a good self advocate, you must check the sales/service record of the manufacturer and vendor of the device. You could find a device that works very well for you, but unfortunately, other users have had nothing but problems with the vendor's reliability with follow-up and regular maintenance. Unless you ask other people who have worked with them, you don't know.

Is repair service convenient?
Find out where the device will need to go for maintenance and repair. If you need to send it to outer Mongolia, it's going to take a long time to get there and get back. Perhaps another device can do the same job and repairs will be closer. Also, find out if the vendor has loaner equipment available while your device is in the shop.

What is considered regular maintenance?
You may be able to perform some of the maintenance yourself. Other maintenance may need specialized training. Interpoint braille embossers sound wonderful until the end user learns that unlike single-sided braille printers, these require regular cleaning by someone who can take the device apart and put it back together again. Apparently so much paper dust is generated that the braille appears distorted and hard to read. Find out what kind of maintenance your device needs and to prolong the life of the device, follow the directions carefully.


Financial issues often scare people away from devices. They think, "I'd love to have that, but I could never afford it." Don't get caught in that mind set. Often going through the process of finding out exactly what you need will provide the documentation that a funding source needs to purchase the device for you. You may also find out that other funding sources are more appropriate than the one you originally thought. Further, it is up to the consumer to do the homework. Understand the reasons of why state rehabilitation agencies or the Program to Achieve Self Support allows people to obtain adaptive technology is just as important as the process for obtaining assistance.

What is the total final cost?
Some devices come all in one piece, others come with add-ons that will up the cost of the device. Be sure to get the total cost of the item with all the add-ons you need. Are there package deals? Will you need a specifically designed mounting system? Will you need two battery packs instead of one? Do you need a backup system? What about software needs? It's frustrating to finally get the device and then find out that you need another item to make it work for you.

Are there training costs? Is training included in the purchase price?
If you don't ask these questions prior to purchase, you may find training costs will make the device unattainable. Purchasing it and being unable to use it because you lack training is a discouraging experience.

Who will fund maintenance and repairs?
Imagine how you will feel if your device needs repair, and you find out that you are responsible for the cost of repairs and you didn't know it. Ask before the purchase! Are rental/lease plans more cost effective? If you are going to use the device on a short term basis, you may want to consider renting or leasing options. It's also a good idea to try out the device before you invest much money in it. Most reputable dealers have rental/lease options that either will let you apply the money toward the purchase price, or offer a 30-60 day return policy. You'll need to ask so you know the specific details of the trial period.

If you are working with a vendor that does not allow that type of option, look elsewhere. They may not be there after the purchase if they are so stiffly uncompromising prior to it. Look for my next article to discuss issues in selecting a vendor or dealer.

Will I need to change devices or upgrade soon?
If you are gaining or losing skills because of the type of disability you have (such as a loss of vision), consider how much time you will be using the device. Measure these factors into the equation about whether the device will work, really work, for you.

Will I get a trade-in/upgrade allowance?
With the rapidly changing world of technology, things you purchase may be obsolete in a year. As long as the device still works for you, that's fine. However, you need to realize that it will have very little market value if you need another device or decide to upgrade.

Parting Words

Blind computer users and technology consumers with disabilities of all kinds must become advocates for their own needs. Relying on professionals to figure out what you need means you will not get the best device for you. Use professionals to help figure out the kinds of devices that will help you perform certain tasks; however, the consumer alone will ultimately decide if a device works. If you are not comfortable with a device for any reason, speak up, loud and clear! It will be better in the end if you express your opinions prior to the purchase. Complaining to a funding agent that a device doesn't meet your needs months after the fact, is upsetting and disheartening for the funder and often does not change the situation for the consumer.

Finally, it's important to realize that often the best technology solution is a simple-tech solution. Consider how additional training, learning new skills, or environmental adaptations can meet your needs prior to purchasing any device. Training and environmental changes are long lasting and usually don't require ongoing repair and maintenance. However, these aren't the answer for all the barriers blind people face. After deciding that training or an environmental change won't work, AT may be the most practical option; however, always keep in mind that the AT solution should be appropriate for the task and meet your need as well as your own sense of who you are. Stay connected. the next article will give great ideas to consider in choosing an adaptive technology specialist. Watch for it!


How to Buy Assistive Technology Online

EnableMart -- http://www.enablemart.com -- is your accessibility solutions store, featuring the latest and greatest computer hardware, software, development tools, and aids designed to fit your specific needs, interests, and goals.

Learningneeds.com -- www.learningneeds.com -- by Riverdeep Interactive Learning, delivers the best products and services (as per Microsoft) to make high-quality education accessible to students with special needs. Leaders in the industry have come together to bring all of these products to you in one online marketplace.

Note: Be sure to contact the assistive technology vendor to check compatibility with the version Microsoft Windows you are running on your machine. Also, contact the assistive technology vendor to learn how to adjust your Microsoft Windows settings to optimize compatibility with a specific assistive technology product.


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